Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Stress Fracture Of Lumbar Spine Sample †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Examine about the Stress Fracture Of Lumbar Spine. Answer: Presentation This report depends on football-related pressure break of the lumbar spine. Football is the universes most cherished game. Its history goes back to over a century. It started in the year 1863 when Football Association of England was first framed. It was the principal body shaped to oversee the games (Walvin, 2014). The soonest type of the game goes back to the Han line of China. Another variety of the game began in the Far East also and this was named the Kemari, which started in Japan. In addition, the Greeks and the Romans additionally had different varieties to this game like the Episkryos and the Harpastum, individually (Ryynnen, 2015). In 1882, the football related relationship in England worked together to make the International Football Association Board (IFAB). FIFA was set up in the year 1904 in Paris and it turned into a piece of IFAB in the year 1913. Around then, FIFA had just 7 nations as its individuals yet now it comprises of 208 individuals. This game includes the sup port of 11 players from each group. The players need to move the ball and hit it inside the restrictions goal line. This game includes the able utilization of ones legs and feet and subsequently, it is related with various wounds (Sorez, 2012). Knee wounds are the most well-known type of wounds related with football. Knee wounds include the front cruciate tendon and the average guarantee tendon wounds. Others incorporate lower leg hyper-extends, torn meniscus, torn hamstrings, muscle wounds, shoulder separation and shoulder tendinitis (Whittaker et al., 2015). Stress crack of the lumbar spine is another kind of injury related with football. This is therapeutically known as Spondylolysis. It is caused because of abuse of ones lower back. It is the most well-known type of injury to the lower back related with different games including football. It happens in the lowermost lumbar vertebra named L5 (Kobayashi et al., 2013). The L5 is arranged at the intersection of the lumbar spine and the pelvis. This part remains profoundly worries during different physical exercises, which includes ceaseless moving and moving. Substantial solid powers can cause the smaller scale breaks in the lumbar spine. It includes extreme torment in the lower back. This causes limitations in the development of the player (Murthy, 2012). This report depicts the football-related injury named Spondylolysis or stress crack of lumbar spine. Initially, it gives an order of pressure cracks, finding and the causes related with this kind of injury. Furthermore, it gives treatment and restoration programs. In conclusion, it furnishes an anticipation measures related with the injury. Arrangement and Diagnosis Lumbar spine offers help and soundness to the upper piece of the body. A physical issue to this locale changes the lumbar vertebral shape, in this way influencing the stance. Spondylolysis can be named (1) dysplastic, which is normally inborn, (2) degenerative, which is by and large connected with mature age, (3) isthmic, which is typically connected with sports, (4) horrible, which happens following past breaks and (5) pathologic, which includes either a limited or summed up infection of the bone. Dysplastic spondylolysis happens because of variations from the norm present in the pper scarum or it includes the curve present in the L5. Isthmic Spondylolysis happens in view of sore turn of events, which can cause a lytic-fatige crack of standards. Degenerative spondylolysis includes insecurity of the standards sections (Long Whang, 2015). X-Rays are not valuable to recognize beginning periods of stress cracks of the lumbar spine. X-beams can possibly identify them at the late stages when it is past treatment. A radiograph assists with recognizing pressure break of the vertebra (Cicala et al., 2013). It additionally assists with deciding the stature loss of the vertebra, increment in separation between the pedicles, arrangement of the vertebra, among others. Be that as it may, different filtering methods can be utilized to analyze pressure breaks. These are attractive reverberation imaging or MRI, Computed Tomography sweep or CT-Scan or a straightforward bone output. Be that as it may, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography or SPECT is better than both CT and MRI in the recognition of Spondylolysis (Patel et al., 2016). SPECT and CT uncovers the nearness of number of injuries recognized in the standards interarticularis. One-sided spondylolysis includes the nearness of expanded bone take-up and sclerosis in the con tralateral piece of the standards interarticularis as saw by SPECT and CT. Propelled stages bring about the nearness of sclerosis and pedicle, lamina excess. X-ray uncovers the nearness of hard edema, which assists with deciding the age of the break. CT check assists with deciding the bone life systems like stature misfortune, waterway bargain and section retropulsion (Elgazzar, 2017). High sum pressure on the lower vertebra can offer ascent to push cracks. This outcomes in the arrangement of minuscule breaks in the lower vertebra, especially the L5 or the fifth lumbar vertebra. This outcomes in lower back agony because of turn, expansion and flexion developments. These developments influence the back parts of the spinal segment, bringing about the arrangement of miniaturized scale breaks in the bone (Gellhorn Katz Suri, 2013). It is especially seen in youthful games players. Overextending or overstretching of the lower back can offer ascent to can offer ascent to a ton of stress. These are regular among weight lifters, gymnasts and footballers (Sasaji, 2016). Abuse of back muscles brings about weakness and results in its powerlessness to assimilate stuns. Dreary stuns can offer ascent to little splits in the vertebrae. Constant agony in the lower back is the most widely recognized indication. This may result from compressive or mechanical agony. Spondylolysis can likewise prompt Spondylolisthesis. This outcomes in slippage of one vertebra over the other. The subsequent slipped vertebra can squeeze the spinal waterway space, accordingly compelling the nerves (Raastad et al., 2015). This weight can likewise prompt back, leg and hip torment. It can likewise bring about deadness of the feet. Different elements that can cause pressure cracks are the hereditary constitution of an individual and osteoporosis. Treatment and Rehabilitation A compelling and intense treatment program is required for players experiencing pressure breaks of the lumbar spine. The treatment as a rule starts after determination and includes upholding of complete rest to the competitor. The player is expected to stop the different routine activities and any developments that may cause in torment improvement. In the event that the torment proceeds following 3 weeks, it implies that the player in getting inadequate rest or may require the help of a back support. Back supports help to keep up the best possible situating of the back so as to accelerate the recuperating procedure (Lee et al., 2012). Intermittent X-Rays are expected to decide whether the back is in appropriate position. On the off chance that non-careful treatment doesn't assist with keeping the back in legitimate position, a spinal combination is suggested. In this method, screws and poles are utilized which assists with keeping the vertebra in the best possible situation nearby th e mending procedure. This thus assists with halting the movement of an a vertebral portion, in this manner diminishing the agony (Wu et al., 2012). Be that as it may, there are dangers engaged with this method, which includes contamination, dying, vein injury and poor mending of wounds. In addition, ibuprofen, which is an inhibitor of irritation, can be utilized to mend the agony. Aside from the utilization of different nonsteroidal calming drugs (NSAIDs), muscle relaxants can likewise be utilized (Patrick, Emanski Knaub, 2016). Drugs coordinated against opiate torment and against neuropathic torment (like tricyclic antidepressants) can be utilized. Different procedures for treatment of agony include pain relieving patches, which are restricted and intercostals nerve squares or transcutaneous nerve stimulatory units (Wong McGirt, 2013). The restoration program starts after the treatment stage. On the off chance that the torment dies down and the player can perform day by day exercises, the competitor is permitted to advance to the recovery program. The recovery program starts in the second month after determination, since the primary month is related with different careful or non-careful medicines. The restoration program is described by active recuperation with the assistance of an accomplished physiotherapist (Peterson Renstrom, 2016). Non-intrusive treatment includes different activities like the lumbar and center activities for adjustment, center activities for age of center dependability, practices that fortify the legs and the hips. Different activities include postural taping, delicate tissue kneading and Spinal Proprioceptive Extension Exercise Dynamic Program (SPEED) (Papa, 2012). In addition, these activities additionally help to make the muscles adaptable to permit legitimate development. Exercise project s can likewise be intended to empower the players to rehearse at home. Exercises that give lesser measures of pressure can be presented. In any case, exercises that put a great deal of focus on the spine like revolution or back curving is maintained a strategic distance from. In the event that the player can do the non-intrusive treatment and the low pressure exercises, at that point they are permitted to advance to the third period of the restoration program. The third stage includes continuation of the activity programs both at home and at the recovery place. Active recuperation practices are likewise expanded. The players are permitted to come back to their games, be that as it may, it is a steady and dynamic return, which includes a lot of boundaries and rules set out by the clinical professional or physiotherapist (Garet et al., 2013). Be that as it may, support in the game ought not be completed on successive days. On reoccurrence of agony, the exercises and activities are sho uld have been decreased. Counteraction measures Stress break of the lumbar spi

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The newly theory of educationalists

Fitting the newly hypothesis of educationists at place and on board said that the best age to larn L2 is from 4 to multi year-old. During these occasions, most children have entered basic school. In this way, it is a basic for basic school students to set up English exercise, which has gotten an inclination in many metropoliss in China including their rustic topographic focuses. What's more, the National Ministry of Education gave a papers, which said that a tiny bit at a time offer English class in straightforward school from Grade Three, in 2001. In this new course of study rule, passionate factors in guidance and securing are recorded in the top topographic point for the ground that semantic correspondence obtaining can non go from the emotion.1.1 The significance of study understudies ‘ anxiousnessThere are army reason for accepting that the impact of nervousness is extremely of import in second phonetic correspondence ( L2 ) procurement. In the first place, uneasiness is all things considered seen as a mental develop and has been investigated by examine laborers. Spielberg ( 1966 ) characterizes nervousness as emotional, deliberately detected sentiments of apprehensiveness and strained quality, joined by or related with initiation or stirring of the autonomic sensory system. Gardner and MacIntyre ( 1993 ) think, etymological correspondence larning uneasiness is the strained and stunningness feeling in L2 setting ( including discourse creation, tuning in, perusing and forming ) . This uneasiness is associated straight with open introduction in the imprint semantic correspondence, so non essentially an overall population introduction nervousness. Second, understudies ‘ character has uniqueness in L2 for they are at advantage in L2 larning. They are described by acceptable incitement, memory and variant. The individuals who start to larn L2 at an early age can do more noteworthy achievement than the individuals who start to larn when they are adults. In any case, understudies may hold a few impediments in L2: lacking insight, insufficiency of abstinence and could non know separated missteps from their equivalents and even their teachers with low learning quality and restricted discernment. In addition, distinctive feeling has diverse effect on L2 procurement. Orchestrating the examination of Eills ( 2000 ) understudies who are persuaded by promotive uneasiness could contest the new endeavor, excite their conceivable and conquer inconveniences, in this manner they get L2 larning achievement. Interestingly, antagonistic feelings and perspectives, for example, the mental study of exorbitant pendency, tentativeness and intro vertive character, especially tension, will follow up on L2 procurement and just get litter information. â€Å" Anxiety tends to non fruitful L2 obtaining † ( Arnoldi2000, p.292 ) . Third, understudies ‘ feeling, American mental etymologists Krashen ‘s fifth reason, is included the system of phonetic correspondence securing and channels etymological correspondence input just like an assurance screen ordering the information factors and breathed in measure that they could contact. In this manner, uneasiness, as a negative feeling factor, seriously influences straightforward students ‘ thought process in English obtaining. Krashen ( 1982 ) other than obviously demonstrates that understudies ‘ enthusiastic separating gadget through affecting its info factors. Along these lines the higher obtaining uneasiness, the more the info forestalled by the affectional channel gadget which prompts phonetic correspondence learning disappointment ( Krashen, 1985 ) . Spielberg ( 1996 ) surveies show that 20 % students surrender on account of tension and albeit 6 % of them is just mellow nervousness. By understanding the correlativity between the phonetic correspondence tension ( LA ) and English discourse creation capability of understudies, educators can help chop down the students ‘ level of LA and deliver better obtaining impacts in the low-uneasiness 1eaming condition. It is trusted that the discoveries will pull educators ‘ taking care of understudies ‘ tilting requests and recognize what and why understudies like to make in classroomi?Z The finishing up and vital noteworthiness is to gain the educational arrangements dependent on essayist ‘s inquire about and cognize how to flexibly a low kicking the bucket condition for the understudies and do them larn English all the more speedily and happy.1.2 The foundation of exploring understudies ‘ anxiousnessAnxiety plays a core in semantic correspondence obtaining. Diminishing the negative result of nervousness and reasonable utilization of uneasiness have become essential pieces of L2 larning. In this way, understudies ‘ tension has now drawn a lot of going to from the two language specialists and etymological correspondence educators. At the end of the day the significance of understudies ‘ uneasiness has gotten increasingly going to in the previous 20 mature ages or something like that. From late 1970s to 1980s, a few bookmans demonstrated their interests about affectional circles. Numerous hypotheses, for example, Krashen ‘s delegate hypothetical record examine the significant capacity of affectional factors. In Krashen ‘s theoriesithe great known affectional channel theory depicts the connection between affectional components and L2 procurement. The characteristic assault by Krashen and Terrell ( 1983 ) is a case, which is intended to help amateurs go intermediates. It gives comprehendible contribution to researchers by following various sorts of strategies and exercises. Bailey ( 1983 ) broke down that the LA is brought about by rivalry, examination and relational connection among educators and understudies. Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope ( 1986 ) were the first to deal with outside LA isolated and discernable marvel impossible to miss to etymological correspondence procurement. Since 1990s, investigates into tension overview started a tiny bit at a time have become a point of convergence of present review. MacIntyre composed, in 1999, that â€Å" the term remote LA, or all the more just LA, was simply persuade bringing down to be utilized in the writing † . Characteristic uneasiness has been improved to affect intellectual functioningidisrupt memory, lead to shirking conduct and some different impacts ( MacIntyre and A ; Gardner 1991 a ) . Gardner and MacIntyre expressed that the most grounded ( negative ) correlative of etymological correspondence achievement is uneasiness ( 1993 ) . Studies show the negative correlativity of tension with the undermentioned: confidence, for example , the judgment of one ‘s ain worth ( Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope 1 986 ; Price 1991 ; Scarcella and Oxford 1 992 ) Since now, Chinese bookmans other than start to focus on uneasiness in securing and guidance. Liu Meihua and Shen Mingbo ( 2004 ) called attention to that there were two sorts of nervousness in English schoolroom: characteristic uneasiness and condition tension. Them two impacted the students ‘ unwritten English open introduction contrarily. Zhang Baoyan ( 1996 ) made an exploration on the correlativity among LA and listening capability among 40 Chinese school students. Notwithstanding, a significant part of the exploration is as often as possible concentrated on specific aspects and a lot of it is utilized for school understudies, secondary school students or optional school students and only here and there utilized for straightforward. Over the past mature ages, there were army surveies on understudies ‘ nervousness of L2, however a large portion of them concentrated on either higher education ( Aida, 1994 ; Ganschow et a1. , 1994 ) or secondary school degree ( Chang, 1 999 ; Ganschow and A ; Sparks 1996 ; Liao 1999 ) . Not many of them paid taking care of grade school degree aside from the review of Chan and Wu ( 2000 ) . The uneasiness is firmly related with understudies ‘ thought process in English securing. The best possible nervousness could impersonate understudies to show signs of improvement of difficulties and to arraign further cognizance, while exorbitant tension work stoppages students reenactments of English securing. In the aspect of support, the congrats can mirror juvenile researchers ‘ larning contribution and positive feeling, offer ascent to thus amplify larning rationale and in the long run do them take ventures and to build up their achievements and capacities. In a word, consolation could diminish understudies ‘ tension in L2. Furthermore, this English procurement tide is more remote supported by an of importII Problems of Teaching and Learning English Existing in straightforward SchoolsThe reality that English has gotten one of the central purposes of children guidance in China is unquestionable. Anyway there are a few occupations still at that place.2.1 Problem s from aspects of English instructionFrom the â€Å" guidance † feature: 1 ) LA in learning is non satisfactory strong. The New Curriculum Criteria improves learning closes, taking at spoken phonetic correspondence, unit of ammo sentence structure applying, jargon retaining and all the finishes which can better the basic school understudies ‘ open introduction in larning English. Consequently a portion of the teachers disregard the significance of understudies ‘ LA. 2 ) The positive impact of uneasiness has been looked down. Most teachers think any uneasiness is negative in learning. Be that as it may, the correct uneasiness assists with climbing understudies ‘ rationale on English securing, which is useful for teacher to exploit this positive impact to mirror understudies ‘ involvement.2.2 Problems from aspects of English acquisitionFrom the â€Å" procurement † feature, 1 ) Elementary school ‘s English has no investigation power per unit region of come ining a higher school. The individual rating instrument prompts the insufficiency of students ‘ rationale to larn. Numerous understudies only keen on larning for a piece, and with the expansion of examining inconvenience, the all the more learning, the more hard. Progressively they lose their procurement associations and comprehend disappointment, accordingly lose the affirmation in larning English. 2 ) As educators disregard to pay their taking care of understudies ‘ uneasiness, result in teachers ‘ taking jargon, language structure for their central guidance endeavors

Monday, August 3, 2020

Clinical Psychology History, Approaches, and Careers

Clinical Psychology History, Approaches, and Careers Theories Print Clinical Psychology History, Approaches, and Careers By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on June 16, 2017 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on June 13, 2019 Carmen MartA-nez BanAs / Getty Images More in Theories Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand History Approaches Education Opportunities View All Back To Top Clinical psychology is the  branch of psychology  concerned with the assessment and treatment of mental illness, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric problems. This field integrates the science of psychology with the treatment of complex human problems, making it an exciting career choice for people who are looking to work in a challenging and rewarding field. History Early influences on the field of clinical psychology include the work of the Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. He was one of the first to focus on the idea that mental illness was something that could be treated by talking with the patient, and it was the development of his talk therapy approach that is often cited as the earliest scientific use of clinical psychology. American psychologist Lightner Witmer opened the first psychological clinic in 1896 with a specific focus on helping children who had learning disabilities. It was also Witmer who first introduced the term clinical psychology in a 1907 paper. Witmer, a former student of  Wilhelm Wundt, defined clinical psychology as the study of individuals, by observation or experimentation, with the intention of promoting change. By 1914, 26 other clinics devoted to the practice of clinical psychology had been established in the United States. Today, clinical psychology is one of the most popular subfields and the single largest employment area within psychology. Evolution During the World Wars Clinical psychology became more established during the period of World War I as practitioners demonstrated the usefulness of psychological assessments. In 1917, the American Association of Clinical Psychology was established, although it was replaced just two years later with the establishment of the American Psychological Association  (APA). During World War II, clinical psychologists were called upon to help treat what was then known as shell shock, now referred to as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The demand for professionals to treat the many returning veterans in need of care contributed to the growth of clinical psychology during this period. During the 1940s, the United States had no programs that offered a formal degree in clinical psychology. The U.S. Veterans Administration set up a number of doctoral-level training programs, and by 1950 more than half of all the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)-level degrees in psychology were awarded in the area of clinical psychology. Changes in Focus While the early focus in clinical psychology had been largely on science and research, graduate programs began adding additional emphasis on psychotherapy. In clinical psychology Ph.D. programs, this approach is today referred to as the scientist-practitioner or Boulder Model. Later, the Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree option emerged, which placed a greater emphasis on professional practice rather than research. This practice-oriented doctorate degree in clinical psychology is known as the practitioner-scholar, or Vail model. The field has continued to grow tremendously, and the demand for clinical psychologists today remains strong. Approaches Clinical psychologists who work as psychotherapists often utilize different treatment approaches when working with clients. While some clinicians focus on a very specific treatment outlook, many use what is referred to as an eclectic approach. This involves drawing on different theoretical methods to develop the best treatment plan for each individual client. Some of the major theoretical perspectives within clinical psychology include: Psychodynamic approach:  This perspective grew out of Freuds work; he believed that the unconscious mind plays an important role in our behavior. Psychologists who utilize  psychoanalytic therapy  may use techniques such as free association to investigate a clients underlying, unconscious motivations.Cognitive behavioral perspective: This approach to clinical psychology developed from the behavioral and cognitive schools of thought. Clinical psychologists using this perspective will look at how a clients feelings, behaviors, and thoughts interact.  Cognitive-behavioral therapy  (CBT) often focuses on changing thoughts and behaviors that contribute to psychological distress.Humanistic perspective:  This approach to clinical psychology grew out of the work of humanist thinkers such as Abraham Maslow and  Carl Rogers. This perspective looks at the client more holistically and is focused on such things as  self-actualization. Education Requirements In the United States, clinical psychologists usually have a doctorate in psychology and receive training in clinical settings. The educational requirements to work in clinical psychology are quite rigorous, and most clinical psychologists spend between four to six years in graduate school after earning a bachelors degree. Generally speaking, Ph.D. programs are centered on research, while Psy.D. programs are practice-oriented. Students may also find some graduate programs that offer a terminal masters degree in clinical psychology. Before choosing a clinical psychology program, you should always check to be sure that the program is accredited by the APA. After completing an accredited graduate training program, prospective clinical psychologists must also complete a period of supervised training and an examination. Specific licensure requirements vary by state, so you should check with your states licensing board to learn more. Students in the United Kingdom can pursue a doctorate level degree in clinical psychology (D.Clin.Psychol. or Clin.Psy.D.) through programs sponsored by the National Health Service. These programs are generally very competitive and are focused on both research and practice. Students interested in enrolling in one of these programs must have an undergraduate degree in a psychology program approved by the British Psychological Society in addition to experience requirements. Opportunities Clinical psychologists work in a variety of settings (hospitals, clinics, private practice, universities, schools, etc.) and in many capacities. All of them require these professionals to draw on their expertise in special ways and for different purposes. Some of the job roles performed by those working in clinical psychology can include: Assessment and diagnosis of psychological disorders, such as in a medical settingTreatment of psychological disorders, including drug and alcohol addictionOffering testimony in legal settingsTeaching, often at the university levelConducting researchCreating and administering programs to treat and prevent social problems Some clinical psychologists may focus on one of these or provide several of these services. For example, someone may work directly with clients who are admitted to a hospital for psychological disorders, while also running a private therapeutic office that offers short-term and long-term outpatient services to those who need help coping with psychological distress. A Word From Verywell Clinical psychology is one of the most popular areas in psychology, but its important to evaluate your interests before deciding if this area might be right for you. If you enjoy working with people and are able to handle stress and conflict well, clinical psychology may be an excellent choice. The field of clinical psychology will continue to grow and evolve thanks to the changing needs of the population, as well as shifts in approaches to healthcare policy. If youre still unsure whether clinical psychology is right for you,  taking a psychology career self-test ?may help. Overview of Developmental Psychology

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Sexist Language Definition and Examples

Sexist language refers to words and phrases that demean, ignore, or stereotype members of either sex or that needlessly call attention to gender. Its a form of  biased language. On the surface level, eliminating sexist language from your writing can be just a matter of word choice or making sure your pronouns arent all he and him. Sentence-Level Revisions Look at your pronouns. Have you used he and him throughout the piece? To revise this out, you can use he or she, or maybe, if context permits, pluralize your references to use the cleaner they and their instead of he or she and his or her in one sentence, as it could become awkward, wordy, and cumbersome. For example, When a person sells a car, he or she needs to locate his or her title paperwork could be more smoothly done by revising to plural: When selling a car, people need to locate their title paperwork.   You can also try and revise out pronouns to be articles. You could locate the title paperwork in the example sentence instead of their paperwork and not lose any meaning.  If  you would like practice recognizing and eliminating sexism from writing, see this  exercise in eliminating gender-biased language. Looking for Bias On a deeper level, youll want to look at details of the piece youre writing to make sure that it doesnt somehow portray all scientists as men, for example. In A Canadian Writers Reference, Diana Hacker wrote, The following practices, while they may not result from conscious sexism, reflect stereotypical thinking: referring to nurses as women and doctors as men, using different conventions when naming or identifying women and men, or assuming that all of ones readers are men. Some job titles have already been revised out of sexist usage in our everyday vernacular. Youll probably more often hear the phrase flight attendant nowadays  rather than the now antiquated-sounding stewardess and hear  police officer rather than policeman. And people dont use male nurse anymore, now that nurses of both genders are a common sight in medical settings. Youll want to look at the undercurrents in your writing. If youre writing fiction, youll look at things like, for instance, are the female characters (or male) portrayed as complex people, or are they used just as plot devices, flat as cardboard stand-ups? Examples and Observations Ensuring parity is an important topic. Here are some examples of the many sides  of the issue, including one where satire helps make the point:   Questions and criticisms of sexist language have emerged because of a concern that language is a powerful medium through which the world is both reflected and constructed....Some have claimed that the use of generics (such as mankind to refer to both men and women) reinforces a binary that sees the male and masculine as the norm and the female and feminine as the not norm...(Allyson Jule, A Beginners Guide to Language and Gender. Multilingual Matters, 2008) Language in Context The language as sexist prong of language and gender studies has faded in the last two decades....It was soon realized that a word could not unproblematically be derided as sexist since it could in principle be reclaimed by a given speech community (queer probably being the most famous actual example).( Lia Litosseliti, Jane Sunderland, eds. Gender Identity and Discourse Analysis. Johns Benjamin Publishing Company, 2002).   Sexist Language in The Office Michael: Okay, so what I want to engage us in today is a hardcore discussion about womens problems and issues and situations. Magazines and TV shows and movies portray women as skinny, tall goddesses. Well, look around. Are women like that? No. No, they are not. [Points to Pam] Even the hot ones arent really that skinny. So what does that say? That says that you women are up against it. And it is criminal. Society doesnt care. Society sucks. I dont even consider myself a part of society, FYI, because I am so angry over all of this....Karen: What youre saying is extremely misogynistic.Michael: Yes! Thank you. That was not necessary, but I appreciate it. And it proves my point: women can do anything.Karen: Im saying that youre being sexist.Michael: No, Im being misogynistic. That is insane, Im not being sexist.Karen: Thats...its the same thing.(Steve Carell and Rashida Jones, Womens Appreciation. The Office, 2007)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Economic Feasibility Study Free Essays

The economic feasibility study of a project is an estimate of the potential profitability of that project, or a study that measures the expected benefits from a certain project relative to its cost (Johnson and McCarthy, 2001; Wong et al., 1999). Examples of construction projects include highways, tunnels, bridges, water mains, dams, sewage systems, water treatment plants, power generation plants and pipeline networks. We will write a custom essay sample on The Economic Feasibility Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now Infrastructure projects can be classified as large construction projects that utilize vast amount of resources in terms of money, materials, labor, equipment and time (Salman et al., 2007; Kulkarni et al., 2004; Morley, 2002). Economic feasibility studies need to be conducted prior to the construction of infrastructure facilities due to the ponderous disbursement on infrastructure projects which needs to be weighed against the expected benefits resulting from these projects to the public and the national economy. However, Owner decision makers and financial institutions build their decisions to proceed with and/or finance any project based on the results of the feasibility study of that project (Abou-Zeid et al., 2007; Vancas, 2003)in other to ensurethat the validity of economic feasibility studies of infrastructure projects is a vital step in ascertaining decisions related to the construction of infrastructure facilities are based on consistent and standard procedures that avoid the use of misleading or inadequate information. Economic benefits include the profits the project owners earned, taxes that are paid to the governments, benefits to the clients etc. Theoretical Framework Theoretical framework for the study is based on cost-benefit analysis of a construction project. Inability of the quantity surveyor to properly ascertain if a project is viable can lead to loses or project failure. The analysis is to determine the success factor, risk assessment and management, repition of project scoping and scaling, estimate the financial return, and select possible project options through the use of cost benefit analysis. Therefore a major theoretical approach that will be used for the study is to examine the cost-benefit of a construction project. Cost-Benefit of Construction Projects The major cause of project failure is described as the variation or deviation from the original project plan. Project monitoring and control could only effect corrective actions to bring deviated project plans on course, but failed to be mindfulness of identifying and analyzing the root causes of such variations. Also project monitoring and control are not final cost and time effective to implement. Therefore, this study intends to fill those gaps created by project monitoring and control. Oberlender (2000) in his reports states that there is proneness for some designers to make changes during design in order to please clients without regard to the effect on these changes on the project final cost and schedule. He furthermore by saying that changes can be catalogued as either project development or scope growth. Project development relates to changes that are needed to give consideration to the scope as currently defined scope growth relates to changes that alter the projects original scope; the scope that was approved before starting the design process. These changes, though inevitable usually add final cost and time to the original design. The usual practice is that the lead designers must develop a system of monitoring the design effort to ensure that work is progressing without excessive billable hours, but is still producing adequately defined plans and specifications for the contractors to execute the work during construction. Though this will reduce the contractor’s complaints of pretty drawings in construction that are full of error and lack constructability, they will still add to final cost and time of the project. This study favors’ identifying the prominent factors responsible for scope growth and other variations in plans, address them accordingly before the final project design with a view of mitigation or eliminating the negative effects. Therefore It is compulsory that every propose change must be subjected to a formal review and approval process that considers final cost and schedule implications as well as the quality specification and standards; plus consequential effects on other activities. The authority to approve changes during design must be limited. It is a fact of life that changes the variations in plans occur during the implementation stages of project and they might result to project failure if not properly rectified. nevertheless project managers need to be always ready to address the problems. The earned-values system presented by Oberlender (2000) can be determined by multiplying the percent complete times the budgeted designed hours for each task. The earned-value can be compared to actual design-hours billed to the job and the planned design-hours to measure the performance of the design process. Earned-value = Percent complete x Budget for that account Percentage completion = Actual final cost or work-hours to date Forecast at completion For the determination of the overall project percent complete, therefore; Percent complete = Earned work-hours/Naira all accounts Budget work-hours/Naira all accounts Final cost performance index (CPI) = Sum of earned work-hours of task included Sum of actual work-hours of task include Schedule performance index SPI = Sum of earned work-hours to date Sum of scheduled work-hours to day Scheduled variance (SV) Earned work hours or naira-Budgeted work Hours or Naira SV = BCWP – BCWS Final cost Variance (CV) = Earned work-hours or Naira-Actual work-hours or Naira CPI = BCWP – ACWP Where BCWP = Budgeted final cost of work performed BCWS = Budgeted final cost for work scheduled ACWP = Actual final cost of work performed CPI = final cost performance index problems. The original final cost estimate is the budget actual final cost (BAC) in the earned-value analysis. Therefore, if the original final cost estimate for the project is incorrect, then all progress measurements during execution of the project would be measured against an incorrect budget. The system of recording final costs charged against the job must be consistent to provide realistic comparisons from one reporting period to another. Also the method of measuring work completed must be consistently applied from one reporting period to another, otherwise the predicted status of the job will vary widely. Each project must be assessed based on the unique circumstance and conditions that apply to the project in order to use the earned-value system to manage the project. The partial list of items that can cause the final cost or schedule to vary from the original project plan are presented by Oberlender (2000) as follows: estimating errors, technical problems, design errors, test data problems, constructability and equipment problems, scope control (change orders), management problems, personnel skill level, resource availability organization structure, economic/inflation, delay material deliveries, delay equipment deliveries, poor production rates, subcontractors interference and delay, act of God (weather, fire, flood etc). Telsang (2004) also observes that the following affects plan; non availability of materials due to shortages or late delivery, plant, equipment and machine breakdown, change in demand, design and rush orders, absenteeism of workers, and lack of communication among various functional areas of business. In a similar vein, variation factors of quality plans are usually described as assignable variation. According to Stevenson (2002), unlike natural variation, the main sources of assignable variation can usually be identified (assigned to a specific cause) and eliminated. He further states that; tool wear, equipments that needs adjustment, defective materials, human factors (carelessness, fatigue, noise and other distractions, failure to follow correct procedures and so on) and problems with measuring devices are typical sources of assignable variation. Some challenges faced by the analysis includes: The poor awareness of the importance of feasibility/viability analysis Benefits are not easily quantifiable in terms of social, economic and environmental benefit. The scope of feasibility/viability was poorly judged. How to cite The Economic Feasibility Study, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Spiritual Assessment Tool free essay sample

Tool Health care providers who can recognize a patient’s spiritual needs pertaining to their mental health care, this is spiritual assessment. With resources and needs of spirituality have a large impact on the beliefs on the healthcare outcomes and resolution of accurate spiritual assessment. Due to the professionalism of my job Spiritual assessment isReligion and spirituality in health careThis first paragraph is your introduction paragraph. This paragraph will explain to your audience the importance and reason for a spiritual assessment of patients in the health care setting. In addition, the introduction paragraph sets up the outline of your paper as you will further explain to your audience that your will use a spiritual assessment tool and provide a spiritual assessment interview in this paper to example to your audience how this works, with an analysis of those results. Remember that any paragraph in an APA paper is required to be at least three sentences long and your thesis sentence should be the last sentence in this paragraph Spiritual Assessment Tool I have provided info on six different spiritual assessment tool possibilities. We will write a custom essay sample on Spiritual Assessment Tool or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I want you to research and pick out one of these. Explain in this section, which tool you choose and why your chose this tool. Interview Explain who you are interviewing and why you chose that person Question #1 Provide your question here Include your interviewee’s response here Question #2 Provide your question here Include your interviewee’s response here Question #3 Provide your question here Include your interviewee’s response here Question #4 Provide your question here Include your interviewee’s response here Question #5 Provide your question here Include your interviewee’s response here Analysis In this section, your analysis you will speak to the four requirements of: What went well in your interview? What would you do differently in the future? Were there any barriers or challenges that inhibited your ability to complete the assessment tool? How would you address these in the future or change your assessment to better address these challenges? Also discuss if you were doing this in a hospital setting what barriers you would expect to encounter). Describe the spiritual experience you had with your patient, family member, or friend using this tool. How does this tool allow you to better meet the needs of your patient?